Abstract by Rowan Huang
Quantitative Analysis of Caldera Shape: Earth, Mars, and Io
Calderas are volcanic craters that typically form by collapse of rock into underlying magma reservoirs emptied by eruption. Morphologic classification of terrestrial calderas can be used to predict various aspects of planetary craters with unclear origins. In a study of terrestrial calderas, martian basaltic shield craters, and ionian paterae, we found several variables that can define shape quantitatively, which can be refined using advanced statistics. Discriminant analysis shows a high degree of overlap between terrestrial stratocone and basaltic shield calderas, suggesting they have similar shapes and origins. Ash-flow calderas have distinctive shapes that may be caused by the different eruption style or by the degree of erosion. Ionian paterae and martian calderas are generally most similar in shape to terrestrial stratocone calderas. While more craters should be included, initial analyses suggest age, eruptive style, magma chamber shape, and size are major controls of caldera shape.